Dr. Cesar Nunes
Modelos de uso de tecnología en educación básica y media


Cesar Nunes,


Universidad de Sao Paulo, Brasil
Presentation at ELearning Columbia, Bogota, Colombia, August 2007

  • Thermometer – tool in a teacher training course we offered through the MoE in Brasil about the use of learning objects. 300 teachers attended over 4 months. Used some tools for distance education. It was developed in the ministry’s own environment, we had no choice, administered bhy the University of Sao Paulo. We wanted the learning objects to be used meaningfully, modeling the process we hoped the teachers would use with their students.
  • The thermometer was built by the teachers themselves. Thermometers developed in flash. A fast tool for the students to express what they are feeling. Thermometer of satisfaction. They would use very week. Course is modular and each week they responded to the module. Satisfaction, motivation, dedication and difficulty.
  • Overall when we start a course people are highly motivated. Expectations change as the course progresses. There are several things to measure. Difficulty is low the first week. There is a display for the results. Collecting the results and put on a CD for later research purposes. The students can see the results for themselves and the full cohort – students, teachers and tutors. They could see results of individuals as well. See what the neighbor is doing, what is the motivation and satisfaction of others. This created a dialog between them. As teachers we know what is happening as well. Looking at satisfaction over time… can see the peaks and valleys.
  • Degree of difficulty can be seen over time. Can see if students are devoting attention and can get ideas about how to support motivation. You could do this in a lecture like this and the feedback could allow me to change how I’m lecturing. Good feedback for the teacher. A 2.0 gadget. It could be adapted for any place. I connected my tool with a database and linked them together and used it in the course. Can be used in any course or environment. I know you are not all technicians and don’t use the distance education standards. Sometimes not always compatible.
  • Having shown you this, you can see that this can be used with one computer for each student. Could be disaster if teacher does not know how the student is doing on their own laptops.
  • The other tools – the use of signatures. We did this online, same flexibility to fill out the results online. Adequacy of expectations, of invitate to collaborate and adequacao das posturas. Using a rubric around certain competencies (Showing image of the first module on teamwork. ) This was set up so they could see what teamwork is about and then evaluate with a set of rubrics. In this case we don’t build the rubric with the students, but we have a tool to build the rubric and can be done with the group. The new student can then focus on the right task and this is done before developing the task.
  • Now going back to what we always discuss in these seminaries. Last year in Bilbao spoke after Tony Bates. Left there with the duty of doing things differently. We hear we should develop these 21st century capabilities. But if we go back in history of education, this has been said before years ago. Same thing. But apparently we could not achieve it on a large scale. I know you may have in place actions and activities and challenge the rest of us to do something different.
  • One project is Knowledge Building (Scardamalia and Bereiter http://carbon.cudenver.edu/~bwilson/building.html ) – 12 principles of knowledge building. The main idea and distinctive difference – we must go into a process of idea improvement. Projects and tasks proposed by student done within allotted time frame. We don’t give them time to discuss and publish. The idea of idea improvement needs that time. How can we organize this? This Canadian group is doing that. The class proposes ideas – synthesize and improve.
  • Teaching for Understanding – a template that does not tie you down (Perkins, Stone Wiske, Gardner http://www.pz.harvard.edu/Research/TfU.htm ) – flexible, constructivist. No matter what your style you can be successful. When you focus on understand of the student, the ability to interact with what you are learning, you can be sure that the student acts, is applying process evaluation to his/her task. Important.
  • Project Based Learning for the 21st Century Skills (Oracle Education Foundation http://www.oraclefoundation.org/ ). Project based learning is popular in the US – at least to talk about it. Many people working in this area. Companies like Intel, MSFT, Adobe are helping, part of associations promoting these competencies for the 21st Century. I am now preparing a project based project with the Oracle Foundation. The approach does not contradict previous approaches.
  • Virtual Didactic Laboratory – LabVirt, started in 1999. Was very innovative. Today in view of other work, it can be done in other ways. Important to show the results. We connected students from basic schools who are learning, Physics, Chemistry, Mathmatics and Biology. The idea was to apply the previous approaches. Traditional activities and break from traditions. We cannot cut things sharply. Started with public schools with few computers per student (4:1). Worked on creativity on conceptualization with the curriculum. Teacher would announce topic, students would create a problem statement before reading any text books. They developed their own spontaneous conceptions. They know they are creating a problem situation that will become a simulation. It is difficult for school – the universities helped us transform. The students know they could come up with fantastic or realistic stories that could be transformed. Used rubrics because some had curriculur and competency elements. Show an example of a simulation done by the students.
  • Dirty Clothes are Washed at Home - credits the name of students, design by a uni student. (Cesar narrates the story of a girl dirtying her blouse and she is worried. Then there is definition of fat – hyperlink) She is worried because her mom will scold her. How can I remove this stain. She goes to washing machine with four jars – not sure which detergent to use. Definition of detergent the student can access. Shows formula of each fluid and user has to select. Can ask for cues or tips. If she selects a bottle and tries to clean it. Common thing – we select and make mistakes. Animation shows mistake, then the scientific reason. Feedback what she used was sodium chloride and why it did not work. So she hs to try again. It works and mommy is happy! There is feedback as mom congratulates and ask how she did it and she responds the scientific reason why the right detergent worked. They also create other things where you have to make choices. They don’t have to worry about the technical or design portion – someone else takes charge. Now we have 250 simulations.
  • It is wonderful creativity. You show them the text books associated. Rubric developed in discussion with the students. The exemplar criteria of a physics class. The teacher was worried about the content. Some teachers are worried about creativity and originality, or teamwork (social group abilities), communications in addition to the content. Helping students understand their own audience. The teacher who would judge the use of rubrics, the people who would build the simulation at the university, and other students on the internet. Some of the examples are complex so clarity is important.
  • NEED URL!
  • In school the teachers tell the students they will develop the simulation and discuss the process. It takes 2-4 works for the creation of the stimulation (not the only thing they are doing.) When the ideas come, full of spontaneous conceptions and some are incorrect. So that requires additional work of turning them back to the student for correction and improvement. The students get more information, read, revisit theoretical issues and even if the teachers did not give accurate feedback. Then when project is approved it is sent to the university to do the animation and production.
  • Students are demanding with their experience with the internet and games. The School of Architecture students who make the final projects must attend to attractiveness. Also worked with Engineering and Computing School with engineers doing fellowship. Students have to go for those compulsory work in other companies (internships). So making these was offered as an alternative to interning in a commercial company. Learn coding, qualithy control and working in a social good context as well. Interesting work for them.
  • Now showing 3 minute video about the program.
  • Teacher training for this project is 40 hours.
  • “students end up falling in love with subjects”
  • (Students- teacher review – school of architecture for design – school of Computer science for programming).
  • The ideas is to bring the desire to learn to the daily activities. This is one way – connection between learning and application, between formal and informal learning. In the street they see things and bring it back to school. And pride of publication of the simulations.
  • Another example involves a process of cultural change. Somewhat of a subversive culture. Talk to the teacher. They did a simulation of the heart, how it current travels through the body. Students begin to ask other traditional teachers to apply this method. It supports the learning needs but based on students’ ideas. Used framework based on teaching for understanding. Interesting classes. Fundamental that it challenges the students. Challenging but achievable, within reach. These activities give rise to a motivating and challenging product, allows a lot of input. Ideas may have been simple, but came from students with low participation and self esteem. When they found they could achieve this. The first simulation, even if simple, it involved those students. As time went by they became more complex. When they see their results, they feel they are sharing something they made, a collective project and a big source of price.
  • Cesar has some use models for these things.
  • Start with a problem situation and then approach like a game. The discussion that emerges is important
  • Shows another simulation – “Setembrino” – this simulation has a database behind it, based on a conversation, so using a different browser. A role playing in a situation game. The role of a painter in a neighborhood and the decisions the painter has to make. There are some indicators – it is like a game with a score (indications on the level of quality of life of the person and his impacts on the environment and his own personal economic well being.) Helps thing about consequences of decisions. They go to the market to buy apples – what apple to buy. The expensive organic apple or large scale commercial apple. The choice reflects feedback both to personal economics and the environment. None of the choices is a perfect choice, but they get feedback. And each choices changes their indicators. The student can then give feedback and agree or change their choice. They are asked to estimate changes of an alternative choice. They can then affect their score. When you do this in a classroom, the students can see the results of other students and enable a discussion about sustainability and the impact of our personal choices on a daily basis.
  • The advantage of a simulation is you can see the display – the most important part. It may look difficult to do, and there are technical challenges. You have to adjust and adapt in order not to make this too difficult.
  • Another simulation as part of the ThinkQuest international program. Last year the winner had this topic on digital divide. The site itself is interesting. Shows the simulation. (Software piracy simulation). It personalize a business situation in Chine with copyright issues. There is a persona who interacts with you. Do you want to read his book? You can change your mind along the way until you reach favorable decision – See consqeuqnces of decisions, access more information. These were 1-17 year old students building these. Telling us how they like to learn. There was a team that built a site on real case studies to talk about epidemics.
  • Ask students to create case – what tools could be used. Groups of students each create something. Last week I was in a conference in Canada and they showed how they used a wiki about systems of the human body. Groups would develop challenges to the other group. Had to go to knowledge base to solve. Created pages until they created a successful solution, applying what they are learning along the way.
  • So think about how you can do this with your students? Connect with daily living of people. A local health simulation based on a real local case.
  • We say these simulations are easy to use. Some don’t need to be completed – the ongoing construction participation is interesting. We see how the learning object grows as it is being built. Another free environment – a Canadian group’s environment for teacher learning.
  • The students in this case create scenes – similar to San Diego Software with situations and characters. The students create intermediate scences between main stages. IN this case it was a story of a spy. They leave clues for those tracking the spy. The students see what they are creating will be used by others, but it is an endless object. They can create and sort scenes until they come to the end. Some scenes were selected more. Like on YouTube you watch a video and rate it. That’s what we do. People know what is useful/good and not. The production and feedback is public.
  • Also use thinking tools – conceptual maps, classifiers, timelines in the form of aids. Students can go from one activity to another, find something interesting, import a tool and use it for your case. In the form of a game. You click a play button, the simulation becomes a game. They can use a classification based on their criteria that (missed something here.) The person can go deeper as the game progresses.
  • Another video that talks about the problem based learning project. Uses the same scenario to present ideas)
  • Missed a bit .
  • Thinking about how the professor reacts to these strategies. An evaluation method that allows them to rank criteria involved in the activity. Helps better identify teacher profiles to understand how they are responding to these new methods – from conservative to innovative. It is difficult to analyze this data. A different simulation system.
  • These are the slides I was going to show you. Lots of charts on the data. Visualization of the processes in the knowledge forum. (Interesting network data visualization). When you know people’s thinking you can build a visualization of what they are doing and thinking. Skills, teamwork, literacies. Understand how collective knowledge is formed.
  • Another PDA tool that can be used during a brainstorming session. Working with smaller, more interactive groups. How do you know how small groups are doing? Developed a tool to identify who participates. A technique used by preschool teachers. When you speak, all young students want to speak at the same time. Use a talking stick – whomever has the stick can talk. This ensures no interruption and everyone has a chance to speak. We used a PDA. In a group of four, it is passed around. One may create an idea, another uses PDA to jot down one word to remember what was being discussed. ID if new or existing idea, for or against the idea. Can visualize this in a graph and students can see who contributed information, discussion and how to improve input and contributions. Feedback into a thermometer. Can see changes over time. Then they reflect on their teamwork. Powerful tool.
  • To conclude – this is a free environment developed for children. It can also be used in higher education. We used it at SP University. First have to enter into an agreement that you start with schools then HE. The formal aspect is important. We are in a formal environment and need to bring the two worlds together. When students go in they have their own personal web page, environment, tools to create discussions, create debates, invitation to new ideas, brainstorming tools. The teacher decides and student can use. A project area where you can define a project and invite in other teachers from your or other schools. Makes our work easier. How we do things counts. How we convene students is determined by the environment. Provides the server. Increasingly common and accessible. All we need is internet access. Ensured the use of this devise from 6 year olds to uni students. It can be used with large groups into smaller groups. Individual or group work. Future teachers were hired by other schools to explain this for quick dissemination of this tool. Out of time to show details. (THE PDA).
  • Concluding by remember the thermometer and ask for your feedback on this presentation.